cicero philippics 2 analysis

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Cicero S Philippics Cicero S Philippics by Thomas Reginald Stevenson, Cicero S Philippics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Cicero, Philippica 2, 63; 118 - 119 Loquamur potius de nequissimo genere levitatis. Philippic 2 was a weapon in that war. This site represents an online version of Ingo Gildenhard's book, Cicero, Philippic 2, 44–50, 78–92, 100–119.Latin Text, Study Aids with Vocabulary, and Commentary, published by Open Book Publishers in August, 2018.The DCC edition differs from the book in adding vocabulary in the DCC style, that is, with all words not in the DCC Latin Core Vocabulary glossed in running lists. 2 | Cic. 7After the exordium, Cicero responds to the abuse that Antony heaped on him in the speech of 19 September. While military accolades, in particular the celebration of a triumph, outshone any other achievement, to be an esteemed public speaker was part of the portfolio of distinctions to which members of Rome’s ruling elite aspired. 3 So says Antony to Octavian in Shakespeare, Julius Caesar 4.1.; 2 Consisting of selections from Philippic 2, the text set by OCR offers an excellent introduction to, intervention in, and commentary on this period of turmoil and transition. As Santoro L’Hoir (1992: 26) observes: Cicero fires his ultimate blast of vitriol in his glorious last stand against Antony. This two-volume edition now provides a comprehensive scholarly commentary on Philippics 3-9, ... hence particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of Cicero’s rhetorical techniques and political strategies. Hanc igitur dubitationem, quamquam nulla erat, tamen ne qua posset esse, senatus hodierno die sustulit. Hello Select your address All Hello, Sign in. And he mocked the low level of esteem in which (he claimed) Cicero was held in Roman society (cf. Since other speeches delivered by Cicero in his struggle with Antony are attested, speeches that have not been preserved and were not, apparently, included in the collection of Philippics (e.g., a speech before a public meeting, falling between Phil. [He will no doubt readily obey this intimation, so as to submit to the conscript fathers and your power — a man who has never had himself in his power! The most famous examples appear in the invective of Philippic 2, where the principal aim is to characterize Antony not as dangerous but as ridiculous; as a man of unparalleled levitas, quite unworthy of respect or admiration. In the Philippics, Cicero opts for a combination of remorseless ridicule and drastic demonization. Si inter cenam in ipsis tuis immanibus illis poculis hoc tibi accidisset, quis non turpe duceret? 25The identity sapping of invective discourse can take various forms. Despite the craftsmanship, the overall structure of the speech, however, is deceptively simple and straightforward: 2§§ 1 – 3: exordium [= preface, introduction], 4§§ 42– 43: Transition (attack on Antony as orator). In Philippics 10 and 11 the focus turns away from Marcus Antonius, the principal target of Cicero's ire, to Brutus and Cassius, the assassins of Caesar and Cicero's champions of the republican cause who were seeking to gain control of the eastern provinces in order to prevent them from falling into the hands of Antonius' supporters. About Cicero: Philippics I-II. To some extent it is therefore pointless to enquire into the referential value of invective assertions designed not to give an accurate depiction of an individual’s life or character, but to turn him into a kind of person you would not want to have in your community. Cicero's Second Philippic Pt. The object te is Antony. Vituperatively brilliant and politically committed, it is both a carefully crafted literary artifact and an explosive example of crisis rhetoric. But it is important to bear in mind that invective invents just as much as it represents: it is part of a struggle over the definition of reality. Some aspects of who we are (or perceive ourselves to be) are generic (gender, ethnicity, nationality, legal status), others unique (family background, biography, or personal traits). At one point, Antony ranks even lower than a homo: Non est vobis res, Quirites, cum scelerato homine ac nefario, sed cum immani taetraque belua! She notes: ‘Even more than the first compromising speeches to the Senate, this address wrenched popular sentiment from the claims of the tyrannicides to sympathy for Caesar, hence leadership for Antony’. Phil. Gesine Manuwald: Eine Niederlage rhetorisch zum Erfolg machen: Ciceros Sechste Philippische Rede als paradigmatische Lektüre. Lateinischer Text: Deutsche Übersetzung: Kapitel 63 – Politik und Freundschaft: Est igitur prudentis sustinere ut cursum, sic impetum benevolentiae, quo utamur quasi equis temptatis, sic amicitia ex aliqua parte periclitatis moribus amicorum. The abuse that Cicero attracted, for instance, tended to play off his relatively humble social background and place of origin (a new man from Arpinum), his actions as consul (the illegal executions of Roman citizens without trial), his endeavours to aggrandize himself, be it through the purchase of a magnificent villa on the Palatine, or through the insistent self-praise in his poetry.43 So ‘rather than saying that the truth of invective allegations is irrelevant, we may more accurately say that it is of secondary importance’.44, 18Even so, by flouting standards of discursive decency, feeding on preconceptions, and pandering to prejudices, invective generates its own reality in and through rhetoric. 11 and 12: Fam. As the only child of the wealthy Marcus Fulvius Bambalio and his wife Sempronia, Fulvia was heir to their fortune. Cicero Philippic Ii A Selection Cicero Philippics Ii by Christopher Tanfield, Cicero Philippic Ii A Selection Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Thus in the speech on behalf of Caelius, which contains a similar invective assault as Philippic 2 (directed against Clodius’ wife Clodia, who was a witness for the prosecution), Cicero distinguishes between boorish abuse and the urbane sophistication of a creative tongue-lashing. 19Given the highly conventional and plainly imaginary elements of political invective in republican Rome, one may wonder to what extent verbal attacks, however vile and vitriolic, permanently dented anybody’s reputation. ... At head of title: Cicero Latin and English on opposite pages LC copy replaced by microfilm 27 31 43 Addeddate 2008-10-23 13:56:10 Call number AMS-9486 Camera 1Ds External-identifier urn:oclc:record:667871050 Foldoutcount 0 Dies enim adfert vel hora potius, nisi provisum est, magnas saepe clades; certus autem dies non ut sacrificiis, sic consiliis expectari solet. When Cato the Elder (234– 149 BCE) defined the orator as ‘a good man who knows how to speak’ (vir bonus dicendi peritus) he polemically asserted that the ability to coruscate with words was of secondary importance to the moral fiber of the speaker: no amount of sparkle, brilliance, and sophistication in the use of language can elevate a wordsmith to the status of an orator if he lacked proper ethics. He mocks him for lack of natural ability and the hiring of second-rate teachers, who nevertheless get rewarded handsomely from the public purse. In this regard, when compared with the speeches of the great, fourth-century Athenian orator Demosthenes, whose Philippics inspired Cicero to give his collection the same name, Cicero’s Second Philippic bears a greater resemblance to Demosthenes’ autobiographical Speech on the Crown (De Corona) than it does to Demosthenes’ Philippics proper. In the tumultuous aftermath of Caesar’s death, Cicero and Mark Antony found themselves on opposing sides of an increasingly bitter and dangerous battle for control. He thereby maliciously insinuates that Cicero’s retirement from politics, while perhaps stripping him of the trappings of his Roman identity, has brought him back in touch with his true nature. 45 Compare and contrast Nisbet (1961) and Henderson (2006). Cicero himself, throughout his life, was invested in rhetorical education and the figure of the ideal orator (summus orator), who in his view combined wisdom (sapientia) with eloquence (eloquentia) and was equally versed in the best that Greek culture had to offer (in both rhetoric and philosophy) as well as the ancestral traditions of Rome. But to imply, as some scholars have done, that invective never did any significant damage arguably underestimates its ability to leave a mark on inner-aristocratic interactions. Although it was designed to humiliate the opponent in front of the community, invective also helped, through its enumeration of negative qualities, to shape examples of virtues (cf. Despite undeniable elements of continuity, our identity is under continual negotiation — both for ourselves and for others: indeed, identities are just as much a matter of self-perception as how we are perceived by others: and the two perspectives need not necessarily (indeed rarely do) fully coincide. Latin Text, Study Aids with Vocabulary and Commentary, by Ingo Gildenhard. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-42285-7 (mit Literaturverzeichnis). To what destiny of mine, O conscript fathers, shall I say that it is owing, that none for the last twenty years has been an enemy to the republic without at the same time declaring war against me? 13Antony, too, was an orator of distinction, who received the traditional training of a member of Rome’s ruling elite — and who also continued to hone his rhetorical talents through special tuition later in life.35 In a letter to Q. Thermus (Fam. Dr Gildenhard will soon be releasing another Classics Textbook, Virgil, Aeneid 11 (Pallas & Camilla), 1–224, 498–521, 532–96, 648–89, 725–835. THE FOURTEEN ORATIONS OF M. T. CICERO AGAINST MARCUS ANTONIUS, CALLED PHILIPPICS. Cicero: De Amicitia – Kapitel 63 – Übersetzung. To come to critical terms with this particular ‘oration’ it is arguably more promising to focus on the dominant ‘mode of discourse’, rather than the genre of oratory that Cicero chose for the occasion, i.e. By implication, he considered himself second to none in delivering the latter.40 Cicero was fully cognizant of the important contribution the eliciting of laughter can make to effective communication — and had a reputation for his merciless mocking and poisonous (if entertaining) put-downs.41 Indeed, ‘murderous wit’is one of the qualities that Stockton identifies as hallmarks of Ciceronian invective — together with ‘coarse raillery’, ‘pained incredulity’, ‘destructive logic’, and ‘moral fervour’.42, 17While much invective, then, is gleefully mendacious as it opts for the sleazy, the sensational, and the scandalous in its pursuit of vituperative s/laughter, it nevertheless operates under the pretence that it tells the truth. The speech concludes with a defiant peroration, in which Cicero expresses his unconditional commitment to weather the crisis of the commonwealth caused by Antony’s perceived power grab — albeit by sacrificing his life for the sake of Rome’s freedom. 44-50 & 78-92. And at the heart of Cicero’s verbal assault on Antony is a systematic ‘othering’ of his adversary, a transformation of a member of Rome’s ruling elite, an aristocratic peer, into the veritable opposite: degenerate offshoot of a distinguished family, high IQ, gifted political and military operator, alcoholic (vinolentus) with emetic tendencies (vomitator), compos mentis | vir bonus | in (rational) control of his self, furiosus; creature of base instincts and appetites: gluttony, gambling, drinking, debauchery; vir turpis, Effeminized / female (cinaedus; meretrix, matrona), other members of Rome’s ruling elite; clients, latrones (‘brigands) and lenones (‘pimps’), mime actors and mime actresses > scum. 2.216 – 90). He consorts with scum, ‘attends birthday parties of professional clowns’ (Hall 2002: 289 on Phil. I’m delighted to announce our latest Open Access release, Cicero, Philippic 2, 44-50, 78-92, 100-119. This course book offers a portion of the original Latin text, vocabulary aids, study questions, and an extensive commentary. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Was (for instance) superior rhetorical skill more important than sound moral conviction? 1: The Ultimate Burn The Second Philippic Was never orated by Cicero himself. Those prosecuting his client, he suggests, are guilty of the former. 2 Μὴ μνησικακεῖν. Philippic 2 was a weapon in that war. 2. The attack on the mainstays of Antony’s identity — his status as vir, nobilis, orator, augur, consul, civis Romanus — culminates in Cicero’s denial of his humanity. 35 For Antony as orator see Huzar (1982), Mahy (2013) and van der Blom (2016), Ch. [2] Quae est igitur expectatio aut quae vel minimi dilatio temporis? Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.100: Cato primus Porciae gentis tres summas in homine res praestitisse existimatur, ut esset optimus orator, optimus imperator, optimus senator (‘Cato of the Gens Porcia is deemed to have exemplified first the three supreme human achievements, excelling alike as orator, as general and as senator’). 1 | Cic. 2.11– 20). The ‘no hard feelings’ attitude may well have prevailed in some cases. ii 3.4, ii 4.2], at least the fifth and seventh speeches were referred to as the Philippics in Cicero's time. Pliny’s summary of the speech that Quintus Caecilius Metellus gave for his father Marcus in 221 BCE includes the assertion that dad could lay claim to the ten greatest and best achievements, which men with smarts spend their lives pursuing (Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.139– 40):32. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Cicero, Philippics (2.10). speech delivered in the senate, put into circulation to persuade other members of Rome’s ruling elite to pursue a specific course of political action. PHILIPPICS CICERO M. TULLI CICERONIS IN M. ANTONIUM ORATIO PHILIPPICA PRIMA. In … This commentary on Cicero’s Philippics 1-2 (with Latin text) by John T. Ramsey (Professor of Classics, University of Illinois at Chicago) continues a course of renewed interest in the Philippics: two Italian commentaries on speeches 3 and 13 respectively have appeared recently, 1 and Brill’s Companion to Cicero. 26Antony is at the same time monstrous and malevolent, preposterous and pathetic. Antony certainly knew how to excite a crowd — as he proved when he delivered the funeral oration for Caesar.36 This may well count as ‘the apogee of Antony’s oratory’ for those with a soft spot for Shakespeare, who re-imagines the performance as follows (Julius Caesar 3.2.73– 107):37. 22True, a speaker will always portray his decision to abuse as being motivated by concerns for the community, civic welfare, and a commitment to the truth: anything else would be counterproductive. 8: ‘Career-making in a time of crisis: Marcus Antonius’ oratory’. A paradox emerges: a Roman man and magistrate ought to exercise legitimate power over others (the potestas of a paterfamilias and consul); but Antony is not even able to exercise power over himself. 2.15), and has a love affair with the mime-actress Cytheris. Translated by Siobhán McElduff (2011). In effect, Caesar’s characterization of Cicero as a ‘born’ rhetor brands the former pater patriae and senatorial colleague as someone who is, in essence, a Greek. This rough-and-ready grid is useful as a basic orientation — but does not get us all that far with such an idiosyncratic text as Philippic 2: a written pamphlet that pretends to be the record of an epideictic (or deliberative?) 2.18 = 115 SB, early May 50), Cicero himself refers to him and his two brothers as summo loco natos, promptos, non indisertos (‘of the highest birth and no mean qualities of enterprise and eloquence’) — not people one would want to cross needlessly. Putnam's sons edition, in English Cicero: Philippics I and II: Philippics I-II di Cicero, Marcus Tullius su AbeBooks.it - ISBN 10: 0906515084 - ISBN 13: 9780906515082 - Bristol Classical Pr - 1991 - Brossura He turns Antony into a repellent beast to instigate and rationalize drastic political action against him, turning him into an outlaw, foreigner, enemy, subhuman, who has lost the protection afforded by law, by his status as a Roman citizen, and by being human. Cicero: Philippics II: Lacey, W. K.: Amazon.sg: Books. Cicero’s consulship must have come in for ridicule — as well as the epic poetry he afterwards composed about it (cf. Phil. 28Much of Cicero’s invective operates at the level of personal insults: Antony, he argues, is plain stupid and devoid of (oratorical) talent, but the focal point of his attack is an overall lack of self-control, which manifests itself in all areas where appetites are involved, in particular food, drink, and sex. Cicero claims that Antony falls woefully short of the ideal, despite investing an enormous amount of money in substandard tuition. The target has to be shamed, ostracized, or indeed killed for the common good. Par auteurs, Par personnes citées, Par mots clés, Par dossiers. 8 Throughout, Cicero keeps his text aligned with the fiction that it is a spontaneous response to Antony’s discourse. The noble BrutusHath told you Caesar was ambitious:If it were so, it was a grievous fault,And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it.Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest –For Brutus is an honourable man;So are they all, all honourable men —Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral.He was my friend, faithful and just to me;But Brutus says he was ambitious;And Brutus is an honourable man.He hath brought many captives home to RomeWhose ransoms did the general coffers fill;Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;And Brutus is an honourable man.You all did see that on the LupercalI thrice presented him a kingly crown,Which he did thrice refuse. Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. 8Throughout, Cicero keeps his text aligned with the fiction that it is a spontaneous response to Antony’s discourse.31 In generic terms, Philippic 2 follows the conventions of oratory with a strong invective bent. See See Cicero… His purpose for coming before the Senate is to drive them to the realization that Marcus Antonius and his actions are slowly breaking down the unity of the country. 2.21– 36). 1As we have seen, then, Philippic 2 is anything but an impromptu outburst by an irate orator who had just been raked over the coals and ridiculed in front of his peers. 3.11). Indeed, given Roman society’s lack of canonical moral texts, invective had an important social function to play through its highlighting of virtue and vice. Bear with me;My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,And I must pause till it come back to me. As John Henderson (2006: 142– 43) puts it: Invective is all about getting retaliation in first — pinch, punch, and no returns! Cicero: Philippics I-II. Both of these terms — oratory and invective — are worth a closer look. M. TVLLI CICERONIS IN M. ANTONIVM ORATIO PHILIPPICA SECVNDA [] [I] Quonam meo fato, patres conscripti, fieri dicam, ut nemo his annis viginti rei publicae fuerit hostis, qui non bellum eodem tempore mihi quoque indixeritNec vero necesse est quemquam a me nominari; vobiscum ipsi recordamini. Yet we have turned our attention to the destructive power of a different kind: words and images. This edition is the first since J.D. Across countries and time, people have used images and words to harm, devastate, and completely destroy other people’s reputation, status, and character. semper eo tractus est, quo libido rapuit, quo levitas, quo furor, quo vinulentia; semper eum duo dissimilia genera tenuerunt, lenonum et latronum; ita domesticis stupris, forensibus parricidiis delectatur, ut mulieri citius avarissimae paruerit quam senatui populoque Romano. 37 The quotation is from Huzar (1982: 650). In sharp contrast to his role as augur (a priestly office), he charges him with the perpetration of impieties. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.The evil that men do lives after them;The good is oft interred with their bones;So let it be with Caesar. Quamquam ne ii quidem ipsi, quod locuntur, id sentiunt nec ab iudicio omnium mortalium, quamvis impii nefariique sint, sicut sunt, dissentire possunt. In light of our earlier discussion, we should perhaps also entertain the possibility that invective brings deviance into being — and in doing so can be dysfunctional, insofar as it aggravates tensions and divisions within a civic community. Instances of the ablative ablative construction, relatively rare in Cicero… Phil. It extends beyond detailed linguistic analysis to encourage critical engagement with Cicero, his oratory, the politics of late-republican Rome, and the trans-historical import of Cicero’s politics of verbal (and physical) violence. We can gather from his rebuttal that Antony seems to have charged him with a lack of honour that manifested itself not least in his failure to live up to the obligations of friendship and his ingratitude towards Antony, who claimed to have saved Cicero’s life (cf. And even if he is in no sense a consul, either inhis life-style, his governing of the Republic or the way he was elected, I am without debate an ex-consul. Conceived as Cicero’s response to a verbal attack from Antony in the Senate, Philippic 2 is a rhetorical firework that ranges from abusive references to Antony’s supposedly sordid sex life to a sustained critique of what Cicero saw as Antony’s tyrannical ambitions. Philippics 2.89 essay. ‘Antony’s Oration Over Caesar’s Body’, from: Edward Sylvester Ellis. A Level Latin Group 1 text 2020 & 2021. This impeccable edition still stands the test of time for students at school and university who wish to approach Cicero's major speeches against Mark Antony after the assassination of Julius Caesar. Yet, despite all of these personal failings, he is technically speaking consul, a high magistrate of the Roman people: in other words, he is an empowered pervert, whom Cicero identifies and outs not just as spitting counter-image of a member of Rome’s ruling elite, but its mortal enemy. Besonders zur Vorbereitung auf Klassenarbeiten und das Latinum geeignet Q. Metellus in ea oratione quam habuit supremis laudibus patris sui L. Metelli pontificis, bis consulis, dictatoris, magistri equitum, xvviri agris dandis, qui primus elephantos ex primo Punico bello duxit in triumpho, scriptum reliquit decem maximas res optumasque in quibus quaerendis sapientes aetatem exigerent consummasse eum: voluisse enim primarium bellatorem esse, optimum oratorem, fortissimum imperatorem, auspicio suo maximas res geri, maximo honore uti, summa sapientia esse, summum senatorem haberi, pecuniam magnam bono modo invenire, multos liberos relinquere et clarissimum in civitate esse. Tuis immanibus illis poculis hoc tibi accidisset, quis non turpe duceret to as the only child of the orator...: PDF view: 5920 get Books monstrous, amoral pervert, hell-bent on subverting Rome ’ s arguably. These polemics Niederlage rhetorisch zum Erfolg machen: Ciceros Sechste Philippische Rede als paradigmatische.! 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