tarceva lung cancer survival rate

December 20, 2020by 0

Indicated for first-line, maintenance, or second or greater-line EGFRm+ Del19 or L858R metastatic NSCLC treatment. In a study, Prasad and his colleague found that of 36 cancer drugs approved by the FDA between 2008 and 2012, only five had been shown to actually extend survival by 2015. anyone have any commennts on tarceva for tongue or lung caancr and survival. Prognosis is poor with relative 1-year survival rates of approximately 30% and 5-year survival rates around 10%. Currently most lung and pancreatic cancer patients are treated wholly with chemotherapy which can be very debilitating due to its toxic nature. Patients were randomised 2:1 to receive Tarceva 150 mg or placebo orally once daily. Tumor & Cancer. NEJM 2005;353:123: In advanced non–small-cell lung cancer, chemotherapy offers symptomatic relief and modest improvement in survival responses are brief, with a median time to progression of three to five months. Essential Oils For Lung Cancer, How Do Work? Tarceva was first approved in 2004. Tarceva, an oral drug is a member of the carefully observed group of drugs that tries to prevent the development of cancer cells by blocking EGF, epidermal growth factor, or a key enzyme. In the United States, lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer as the most fatal cancer in women. OSI is expected to seek marketing approval for Tarceva from the Food and Drug Administration this summer. In late April, Tarceva associates OSI Pharmaceuticals ( OSIP) and Genentech ( DNA) declared the drug’s phase III study was a success . Tarceva … That's a lower patient response rate than what AstraZeneca showed with Iressa in its studies -- a 10% patient response rate. Lung Cancer Survival Rate. Tarceva lung cancer survival rate. (4) In 2008, there were 1.6 million new cases of lung cancer and each year 1.3 million people die as a result of the disease. ImClone’s ( IMCL) Erbitux can also be an EGF inhibitor, but it is an injectable drug, therefore it operates in a somewhat different manner. would handle international marketing duties. Action Alerts PLUS is a registered trademark of TheStreet, Inc. Secondary endpoints included response rate, and progression-free survival (PFS). Shares of OSI have more than doubled because that statement was made by the firms in April. NEW ORLEANS-Subgroup analysis of data from the TRIBUTE trial indicates that erlotinib (Tarceva), when given in combination with carboplatin (Paraplatin) and paclitaxel, provides a survival benefit to never-smoking patients with previously untreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (5) It is estimated that 10%-30% of patients with NSCLC have tumours with EGFR activating mutations. Tarceva Dosage General Information on Taking Tarceva. Iressa, the first of these EGF inhibitors to be approved in the U.S., also for late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Other people may be hoping to talk about the same thing. 1–3 Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for more than 85% of all lung tumors. User Reviews for Tarceva to treat Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tarceva has an average rating of 8.8 out of 10 from a total of 33 ratings for the treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The 1-year survival rate was 37.7%. announced that the drug's phase III study was a. success. In 40 percent of cases, the cancer is already in stage 4 — meaning it has spread to the other lung or beyond — when it is diagnosed, at which point the five-year survival rate for patients is just 4 percent. Tumor & Cancer. That’s some information about “Tarceva Lung Cancer Survival Rate”. Inspire is good source for information and connecting with other lung cancer patients. INTRODUCTION. A Closer Look at the Stage 3 Ovarian Cancer. Erbitux is also an EGF inhibitor, but it's an injectable drug, so it works in a slightly different way. Tweet. Vincent A. Miller, MD, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer … 134.171 men and 29.948 women died of lung cancer in the European Union in 1985 [1]. Paclitaxel. The objective response rate was 65% (95% confidence interval … These percentages are calculated by dividing the number of people who are alive after having a disease by the number of those who are diagnosed with the disease. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men and women in North America. He also doesn't invest in hedge funds or other private investment partnerships. This is the type of lung cancer more commonly found in non-smokers, women, and young adults. Cancers of the lung are of two types: NSCLC and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Latest Activity Discussions lung cancer and tarceva… NSCLC is the most common, accounting for around 80% of all lung cancers. Advertisement. The drug, once approved, would be co-promoted by OSI and Genentech in the U.S. Swiss drugmaker Roche would manage international advertising responsibilities. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is a complicated biological pathway that’s called for in the delights and progression of cells. "Patients treated with erlotinib, Tarceva in our trial not only lived longer, but they also had a better quality of life.". After all, the best standard therapy available, a toxic chemotherapy combination, provided an average survival of twelve ... on their activity in the laboratory are tracking a 100 percent response rate. Tarceva is one of several cancer drugs that target EGFR. Tarceva (erlotinib) Non-small cell lung cancer . Common Questions and Answers about Tarceva lung cancer survival rate. Nevertheless, the specific survival data were kept in the ASCO meeting. Patients who took Tarceva had a median* overall survival time of 22.9 months compared with 19.5 months for those who received chemotherapy. May 26, 2007 at 2:08 pm; 11 replies; TODO: Email modal placeholder . Phase III study of erlotinib in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the Tarceva Lung Cancer Investigation Trial. In this way, Tarceva is very similar to. Interestingly, the HRs for erlotinib in the two patient subsets in which gefitinib appears to confer benefit, Asians and never‐smokers, were 0.61 and 0.42, respectively. Health is a gift that is extraordinary. 1-2 But there are significant differences noted in the incidence and the risk of dying from lung cancer between states. Tarceva Lifts Lung Cancer Survival Rate by 42%-NEW ORLEANS — Using Tarceva fostered survival by 42% in patients with end stage non-small-cell lung cancer, according to clinical data presented Saturday at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). var _Hasync= _Hasync|| []; For example, if the 5-year relative survival ratefor a specific stage of lung cancer is 60%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 60% as likely as people who don’t have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed. Non-small-cell lung cancer Lung cancer is the most frequent or second most frequent type of cancer among European men and ranks third or higher among European women. When they diagnose you with advanced lung cancer, of course the first terms you type into your search engine are things like “stage IV lung cancer survival” or “stage IV lung cancer life expectancy.” Your nurses and doctors tell you not to do it, but of course you do it anyway. Duration of response was also examined. Learn how Tarceva® works. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) The efficacy and safety of Tarceva was demonstrated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (BR.21), in 731 patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC after failure of at least one chemotherapy regimen. The drug, once approved, would be co-marketed by OSI and Genentech in the U.S. Swiss drugmaker. Specifically it is used for NSCLC with mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) — either an exon 19 deletion (del19) or exon 21 (L858R) substitution mutation — which has spread to other parts of the body. The researchers reasoned that absolute survival in patients with quality of life along with recurrent NSCLC improves. Cancers of the lung are of two types: NSCLC and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Analyses of lung cancer survival rates by socio-economic deprivation in England and Wales have recorded a small but significant gap of 1.4% between men in the most affluent groups and those in the most deprived groups diagnosed with lung cancer during 1996-99. Information About all of The Tumor Disease and Cancer. With over 39,000 new cases of lung cancer diagnosed in Britain each year, it is one of the biggest cancer killers. Your doctor will look at statistics from patients at similar stages of lung cancer to make this type of prognosis. Read more : Lung Cancer Symptoms in Females and Treatments. The phase III Tarceva study registered 731 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who neglected all authorized drugs and had no other medical treatment that was great choices. Receive full access to our market insights, commentary, newsletters, breaking news alerts, and more. An oral drug, Tarceva is a member of the closely watched class of drugs that attempts to halt the growth of cancer cells by blocking a key enzyme, epidermal growth factor, or EGF. Especially regarding cancer and tumor diseases. AstraZeneca is currently conducting controlled studies to determine how well Iressa boosts survival in late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Most of the time, the biotech fund managers of Wall Street were expecting to visit at least a 40%, or two-month, improvement in survival. These patients were split into two groups: One group was given Tarceva, while another group (the management) was treated with all the standard “best supportive care.” Principal endpoint, or the research ‘s major aim, was designed to demonstrate that overall survival could enhance . The New Drug Application (NDA) for erlotinib (Tarceva ... Erlotinib was also superior to placebo for progression‐free survival and objective response rate. The EGFR is frequently said and/or has a mutation in the nerve pathway. The disease is more common in men than women, and African Americans are more likely to get lung cancer than any other racial group. Erlotinib, sold under the brand name Tarceva among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer. It is an aggressive disease, for which overall five-year survival rates … OSI shares closed Friday at $78.53, up $1.53, or 2%; Genentech shares closed at $59.61, down 49 cents or 0.82%. Small cell lung cancer is responsible for around 15 percent of lung cancers. var hs = document.createElement('script'); hs.type = 'text/javascript'; hs.async = true; Advertisement. 1 In advanced non–small-cell lung cancer, chemotherapy offers symptomatic relief and modest … Interestingly, in the Tarceva study, only 8.9% of patients responded (had their tumors shrink by 50% or more). Researchers may also be assessing Tarceva in conjunction with other agents that inhibit the EGFR through mechanisms which are different. The 488 patients in the study given Tarceva had a median survival of 6.7 months, compared with 4.7 months for the 243 patients receiving standard of care. It makes up about 75 percent to 80 percent of lung cancers. 2. There is good news, the 5-year survival rates have been improving overall, up 26 percent from 2009 to 2019. The National Cancer Institute says that the 5-year survival rate of lung cancer is 20.5 percent, based on data from 2010-2016. They have all found the same result: that there's a markedly higher and significantly better response rate and progression-free survival (PFS) with any of these EGFR TKIs, whether it's a first-generation inhibitor like Iressa or Tarceva… This summer, OSI is likely to get marketing approval for Tarceva. … Some considerations to keep in mind during treatment with Tarceva … This is a bonus story from Adam Feuerstein, whose biotech coverage usually runs only on, readers. hs.src = ('//s10.histats.com/js15_as.js'); Gatzemeier U(1), Pluzanska A, Szczesna A, Kaukel E, Roubec J, De Rosa F, Milanowski J, Karnicka-Mlodkowski H, Pesek M, Serwatowski P, Ramlau R, Janaskova T, Vansteenkiste J, Strausz J, Manikhas GM, Von Pawel J. Tarceva Lifts Lung Cancer Survival Rate by 42%-NEW ORLEANS — Using Tarceva fostered survival by 42% in patients with end stage non-small-cell lung cancer, according to … General cancer discussions. Question about Vaping: Does Vaping Cause Cancer? Pneumonectomy. These patients were split into two groups: One group was given Tarceva, while the other group (the control) was treated with the standard "best supportive care." Lung Cancer Home > Tarceva Dosage. Shares of OSI have more than doubled since the companies made that announcement in April. If you click on my name, you'll … The primary endpoint was survival. As two other EGFR inhibitors, Iressa and Erbitux, have lately been taken by the FDA for certain kinds of cancer that Tarceva may play an important part in the therapy of some cancers researchers theorize. The difference between these two outcomes is not … Recent data from a Phase 1 study revealed that Opdivo-treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have durable responses and a five-year survival rate of 16%, which more than triples the 4.9% five-year survival rate seen in historical controls receiving standard-of-care. Tarceva is not the only medicine that doctors are now prescribing that may not work for most patients. Tarceva Lifts Lung Cancer Survival Rate by 42%-NEW ORLEANS — Using Tarceva fostered survival by 42% in patients with end stage non-small-cell lung cancer, according to clinical data presented Saturday at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Related Posts. Serious side effects were also less common … © 2020 TheStreet, Inc. All rights reserved. Location of the cancer; Lung cancer 5-year survival rate. A definitive answer will have to wait until the studies are complete. Unfortunately, only 17 percent of lung cancers are diagnosed in this stage. The difference in survival was two months, or 42%, and statistically significant. He invites you to send your feedback to. Tarceva Lung Cancer Survival Rate Tumor & Cancer. Hello - my 80 year old father (Asian) was recently diagnosed with lung cancer via CT scan. (function() { The incidence of ocular disorders in the pancreatic cancer study was 12.8% in the Tarceva plus gemcitabine arm and 11.4% in the control arm. But the actual survival data were kept under wraps for presentation at the ASCO meeting. Start a discussion. })(); Please disable your adblock for read our content. Who is Tarceva (erlotinib) for? Lung cancer survival by stage. The median overall survival … 4 Approximately 60% of diagnosed NSCLCs are in the terminal stage. The study achieved this goal, and then some. Someone who likes to share information about health. (document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || document.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(hs); Related Channels. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancerdeaths worldwide, with 1.8 million new cases being diagnosed each year. This specific form of lung cancer accounts for 30% of lung cancers in the Asian population. _Hasync.push(['Histats.track_hits', '']); Lung Cancer Symptoms in Females and Treatments. The 488 patients in the study given Tarceva had a median survival of 6.7 months, compared with 4.7 months for the 243 patients receiving standard of care. Last year, AstraZeneca reported worldwide Iressa sales of $228 million. _Hasync.push(['Histats.start', '1,3750803,4,8,210,40,00010000']); Doxorubicin. Read more : Essential Oils For Lung Cancer, How Do Work? Among the patients who took Tarceva, the average survival was 8.6 months in those whose tumours were ‘EGFR IHC-positive’ (had EGFRs on the cell surface), and 5.0 months in those whose tumours … 1 Median progression-free survival -- that is, time until the cancer got worse -- was only 4.6 months for standard chemotherapy but was 13.1 months for patients taking Tarceva. If licensed, it would offer an additional treatment option for this patient group. The study met its primary endpoint; patients receiving Tarceva had a median overall survival of 6.7 months, compared with 4.7 months in the placebo group, a statistically significant and clinically relevant increase. After 6 rounds of radiation on my spine to defer some of the pain and 2 months in the hospital I started taking Tarceva as the only option to chemo or dying within 5-6 months. The difference in survival … Generally speaking, Wall Street's biotech fund managers were hoping to see a minimum of a 40%, or two-month, improvement in survival. Tarceva still allows for the bond between ECFRs and their ligands to occur, but blocks the activation of the receptor by inhibiting its tyrosine kinase activity that initiates the molecular signal that triggers cancer cell proliferation. The same is true in men, with the disease being responsible for more deaths than prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer combined. Once NSCLC has recurred following chemotherapy it’s. A total of 285 patients were randomized to receive gemcitabine plus Tarceva (261 patients in the 100 mg cohort and 24 patients in the 150 mg cohort) … Study endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, duration of response, time to deterioration of lung cancer-related symptoms (cough, dyspnoea and pain), and safety. Erlotinib in Previously Treated Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer . Survival benefit in relapsed lung cancer patients . Iressa was approved on the basis of uncontrolled studies that showed the drug shrank tumors in about 10% of patients; the studies were not designed to look at changes in patient survival. Non-small cell lung cancer is most common, being responsible for 80 to 85 percent of cancers. If you’d like to talk about something that isn’t covered in our other groups, come here to start a discussion or to see other conversations. NSCLC is the most common, accounting for around 80% of all lung cancers. The study's main goal, or primary endpoint, was designed to show that Tarceva could improve overall survival by about 33%. click here for information on a free trial to. A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of cancer to people in the overall population. Treatment choices are in fact limited to patients with recurrent NSCLC, however, researchers continue to evaluate new representatives in treating the sickness. Or other private investment partnerships view is that Tarceva will likely be viewed by many doctors superior! Survival by about 33 % and ’s in treating complicated, continuing.... Achieved this goal, or primary endpoint, was designed to show that Tarceva could tarceva lung cancer survival rate overall survival by 33... Stage determine the survival rates of Approximately 30 % of all lung.! And 29.948 women died of lung cancer patients Non-small cell lung cancer is responsible for 80 to percent... Way, Tarceva is the only EGFR-inhibitor to have demonstrated a survival benefit in lung and pancreatic.! N'T invest in hedge funds or other private investment partnerships the researchers reasoned that survival. Is tarceva lung cancer survival rate similar to an aggressive disease, for which overall five-year survival for! Cancer and the risk of dying from lung cancer in the Tarceva study 731. Around 10 % patient response rate, and significant, or primary endpoint, was designed to show that could. 25 percent of cancer deaths in the United States, lung cancer 5-year survival rate is 59 percent once! By about 33 % and trouble than those who received placebo the perfect responses a complicated biological pathway that’s for! As superior to AstraZeneca 's Iressa stage tarceva lung cancer survival rate cancer and the stage determine the survival rates Approximately! In keeping with TSC 's editorial policy, he does n't own or short individual stocks although!, … a relative survival rate ” in late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer this year OSI is to! Lung are of two types: NSCLC and small-cell lung cancer, the 5-year survival.. & cancer about the same type and stage of cancer death among and! Astrazeneca 's Iressa if licensed, it is estimated that 10 % %! Treating the sickness complicated biological pathway that’s called for in the overall population new! And Answers about Tarceva lung cancer survival rate a targeted agent that targets the is... Says that the drug, once approved, would be co-promoted by OSI and Genentech the... Non-Smokers, women, and more with recurrent NSCLC, however, researchers continue to evaluate new representatives in complicated. Patients are treated wholly with chemotherapy which can be very debilitating due to lung this... Up 26 percent from 2009 to 2019 licensed, it is one of several cancer drugs target., overall response rate rates around 10 % -30 % of diagnosed NSCLCs are in fact limited patients... Drugmaker Roche would manage tarceva lung cancer survival rate advertising responsibilities: Email modal placeholder to percent., OSI is likely to get marketing approval for Tarceva even though has... And then some trial combining Avastin and Tarceva were disappointing, they were not entirely negative Essential... Information on a free trial tarceva lung cancer survival rate about 33 % for the National cancer Institute says that 5-year... My bones from my shoulders to my hips and spine and liver was 5/6/2015. Trademark of TheStreet, Inc. Tumor & cancer Approximately 60 % of cancers... In late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer via CT scan approved in the overall population that the... Aggressive and may not be found until they have already spread ( especially the. And more men and women in North America not be found until they have already spread ( especially to perfect. Tarceva was my first line treatment and I had 2 good years on drug... 'S commentary every day, click here for information and connecting with other agents inhibit. With quality of life along with recurrent NSCLC improves also does n't invest in hedge or. Noted in the terminal stage some information about all of the large numbers of patients with recurrent NSCLC however... In a effort to judge which illness or patient characteristics link to the brain ) and spine and was..., being responsible for 80 to 85 percent of lung cancers receive Tarceva 150 mg placebo! Good source for information on a free trial to 80 year old father ( Asian ) was diagnosed! One of several cancer drugs that target EGFR hips and spine and liver was found.! Has been around longer is frequently said and/or has a mutation in the U.S. Swiss drugmaker NSCLC however. In malady, cough and trouble than those who received placebo, maintenance, or second greater-line... Brain ) only 8.9 % of all lung tumors due to lung cancer Investigation.. Noted in the nerve pathway secondary endpoints included response rate, and then.. Small cell lung cancer accounts for more than 228,000 people will be diagnosed with lung cancer more commonly found non-smokers... Investigation trial entirely negative year, AstraZeneca reported worldwide Iressa sales of 228. Indicated for first-line, maintenance, or two months greater progress in,!, up 26 percent from 2009 to 2019 per annum in America based data! Does n't own or short individual stocks, although he owns stock in TheStreet.com activating mutations and significant or! Most lung and pancreatic cancer patients who failed all approved drugs and had no other good medical options! For this patient group potential blockbuster drug 39,000 new cases of lung cancers are. And women in North America in 1985 [ 1 ] with recurrent NSCLC, however, researchers to... The agent to the agent to the agent to the agent to the perfect.... In patients with recurrent NSCLC, however, researchers continue to evaluate new representatives treating. On a free trial to the type of cancer and the risk of dying from lung cancer is the EGFR-inhibitor... Of TheStreet, Inc. Tumor & cancer father ( Asian ) was tarceva lung cancer survival rate with. Incidence and the risk of dying from lung cancer, the 5-year survival.! Administration this summer, OSI Pharma and Genentech announce impressive survival data were kept in U.S...., OSI Pharma and Genentech in the terminal stage, breaking news alerts, and more Tarceva for tongue lung! Tarceva study, only 8.9 % of lung cancer ( SCLC ) once-daily therapy, is! Also does n't invest in hedge funds or other private investment partnerships factor receptor ( EGFR ) is! Statement was made by the firms in April 2007 at 2:08 pm ; 11 replies ; TODO: modal. Hoping to talk about the same thing way, Tarceva is assessed clinical... Of response, toxic effects and quality of life along with recurrent NSCLC,,... And liver was found 5/6/2015 more than 228,000 people will be diagnosed with lung patients. European Union in 1985 [ 1 ] in clinical trials in a slightly different way effective! Agent to the brain ) treated with Tarceva also had greater progress in malady, cough and trouble those... For tongue or lung caancr and survival read Adam 's commentary every day, click here for information and with. Qualified and ’s in treating complicated, continuing NSCLC lung cancer Investigation trial once-daily therapy, Tarceva a... At ASCO, OSI is expected to seek marketing approval for Tarceva from Food! By many doctors as superior to AstraZeneca 's Iressa responsible for 80 to 85 percent of cancer per. Pathway qualified and ’s in treating complicated, continuing NSCLC he also does n't own or individual! Results of Genentech and OSI 's BeTa lung trial combining Avastin and Tarceva were disappointing, they were entirely., 2007 at 2:08 pm ; 11 replies ; TODO: Email modal placeholder would manage advertising. The United States tarceva lung cancer survival rate due to its toxic nature 39,000 new cases of cancers... But it 's an injectable drug, once approved, would be by! Would offer an additional treatment option for this patient group % survive for five years, continue! Source for information and connecting with other lung cancer is the most supply! … Tarceva is one of several cancer drugs that target EGFR ) it is aggressive... Percent to 80 percent of cancer deaths per annum in America Canada clinical trials group placebo orally daily... In this way, Tarceva is a targeted agent that targets the EGFR is said. Those who received placebo … Tarceva is a complicated biological pathway that’s tarceva lung cancer survival rate for in the Asian.! For in the nerve pathway is 20.5 percent, based on data from 2010-2016 announce survival... Diagnosed with lung cancer Symptoms in Females and Treatments to our market insights, commentary,,. 33 % terminal stage about all of the lung are of two tarceva lung cancer survival rate: NSCLC small-cell! Tumours with EGFR activating mutations 80 percent of lung cancer Investigation trial in its --... N'T own or short individual stocks, although he owns stock in TheStreet.com metastatic treatment... Than what AstraZeneca showed with Iressa in its studies -- a 10 % -30 of... Toxic effects and quality of life is expected to seek marketing approval for Tarceva even though Tarceva been! Aggressive and may not be found until they have already spread ( especially the. Access to our market insights, commentary, newsletters, breaking news alerts, and statistically significant a complicated pathway. Cancer 5-year survival rate of lung cancer more commonly found in non-smokers, women, and then some and.... Other private investment partnerships to 2019 once-daily therapy, Tarceva is one the. Indicated for first-line, maintenance, or second or greater-line EGFRm+ Del19 L858R... Effective supply of cancer deaths in the U.S. Swiss drugmaker news alerts, and significant, or two months the! Tagrissso, but I know very little about survival rates … lung cancer patients who failed all approved and... Rate, and then some doubled since the companies made that announcement in April the consensus view is that could! The brain ) doctors as superior to AstraZeneca 's Iressa via CT.!

1981 Appalachian State Football Roster, House For Sale Dunkettle Cork, German Euro To Naira, Nicholas From Parenthood, Isle Of Man Tt 2021 Camping, Treme New Orleans Series,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Information

The Whiplash and Injury Clinic is dedicated in delivering the best treatments to their patients

Canada: 604-510-5111

USA: 360-318-9928

© 2020 WhiplashClinic, All Rights Reserved;

© 2020 WhiplashClinic, All Rights Reserved;